Haematuria refers to blood in urine. If you notice blood in the urine it should always be investigated.
Haematuria is usually divided into macroscopic (where you can see the blood in the urine) and microscopic (where the blood is found only on dipstick or microscopy examination). Further clinically relevant distinctions can be made between painful and painless haematuria , and haematuria of kidney and non-kidney origin.
Investigations for Haematuria
Urine microscopy and culture – A mid stream specimen of urine for microscopy of red, white blood cells and bacteria. Bacterial culture will also be performed to exclude an infection.
Urine cytology – Urine collection on three consecutive days to look for abnormal cells in the urine.
Blood Tests – Full blood count and renal function test as well blood coagulation study may be indicated.
Imaging of the kidneys and ureters (drainage tubes between kidneys and bladder) is required to exclude upper tract causes of haematuria such as a tumour in the kidney, bladder or prostate.
A cystoscopy which involves direct visual inspection of the urethra and bladder with a telescope is also required.